Personal Finance is an effective subject to engage students in their learning. This resource uses three motivating real-life contexts to enable students to build their functional skills in Mathematics, English and ICT.

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The resource can be used in Mathematics, ICT or English lessons or any combination of the three. Many teachers will welcome the opportunity to work in a cross-curricular way - for example to incorporate speaking and listening work into a functional skills mathematics lesson or adding some ICT content to English classes.

The resource is divided into three contexts:

  • What went wrong with the prom?
  • Visitors from overseas
  • Insurance – who needs it?

Within each context, wherever possible, the same resources are specified for level 1 and 2 students, with the level of challenge being related to how the students interact with the resource in order to encourage progression. Level related 'call-outs' at the side of the text signpost to the functional skills standards and a summary of these standards is included for ease of reference.

Watch a video which gives an overview of the resource: 


And one which introduces the video and audio resources used in context one:

Resources & Activities

  • Introduction

    The resource is divided into three contexts:

    • What went wrong with the prom?
    • Visitors from overseas
    • Insurance – who needs it?

    Within each context, wherever possible, the same resources are specified for level 1 and 2 students, with the level of challenge being related to how the students interact with the resource in order to encourage progression. Level related 'call-outs' at the side of the text signpost to the functional skills standards and a summary of these standards is included for ease of reference. 

    For more detail on the resource, you can download a short overview of the resource containing a handy guide to the content and resources within Let's Get Functional: Let's Get Functional overview

    Use the button below to download

    Download now

  • Context one: What went wrong with the prom?

    Garry, Reg and Chris need your students' help to sort out what went wrong, convince the head to give them one more try and plan a successful event. How else will Chris manage to go out with the lovely Kelly?


    The resources in this context are organised into five modules, each focusing on a phase of the event planning. Each module is supported by detailed activity ideas and resource sheets to help teachers bring the challenge to life. Teachers can introduce the content of each module by playing individual video clips to set the scene. Audio clips of students making formal telephone calls are also included.


    A fictitious freesheet newspaper, the Consumerham Advertiser

    Use the button below to download

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    , gives a wealth of information which can be used by students to source items for the prom.

    Explore the videos and resources for each module using the menu on the left, or if you would prefer, download the whole of  Let's Get Functional - Context one: What went wrong with the prom

    Use the button below to download

    Download now

    in one go.

    • Character profiles

      Meet the characters of our story, Chris, Regina and Garry, who are working hard to save the prom. You can also meet their main obstacle Mrs Tobary, the head teacher, and the object of Chris's affection: Kelly.


      Keen to have a good time, Garry is really up for a great night at the prom. He is great friends with both Regina and Chris – but sometimes drives them to distraction! Garry is not really a planner – he is happiest when it all just falls into place, although that’s not generally something that happens when he is in charge!



      The down to earth and sensible one of the group, Reg likes to be in control of the situation and doesn’t like unpleasant surprises. A real technology fan, she relies on her laptop and smartphone to help her sort out the answers – spreadsheets are her real passion!




      Some people have described Chris as a bit of an ‘airhead’ – a description that is probably not far off the truth. A stickler for doing what’s right, he is not always clear what that is – hence his arrival at last year’s prom in a chicken outfit instead of a tux like the other guys! Chris is head over heels in love with his lovely classmate Kelly and is desperate to invite her to the prom, if it actually ends up going ahead




    • 1. Why did the prom bomb?

      Setting the scene for the whole context, this module examines the evidence of last year’s disastrous event. Written material (English) and spreadsheets (mathematics and ICT) are used as resources.

      Download the resources for Module 1 - Why Did the Prom Bomb?

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      and watch the introductory video:



    • 2. What's the plan then?

      Students start planning for their own prom in this module.

      Download the resources for  Module 2 - Why did the prom bomb?

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      Download now

       and watch the introductory video:



    • 3. How will we get people to come?

      Students start to think about the factors that will influence whether people will attend their prom or not.

      Download the resources for  Module 3 - why did the prom bomb?

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      Download now

       and watch the introductory video:


    • 4. What could possibly go wrong?

      This module focuses on all the ‘what if’ scenarios that might impact on the prom.

      Download the resources for  Module 4 - why did the prom bomb?

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      Download now

       and watch the introductory video:


    • 5. How can we afford it?

      This module examines whether the school can afford to run another school prom both financially and from the perspective of maintaining its good reputation.

      Download the resources for  Module 5 - Why did the prom bomb?

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      Download now

       and watch the introductory video:



  • Context two: Visitors from overseas

    This context sets students the challenge to plan an itinerary for some overseas visitors based on a key resource – a set of social networking style visitor profiles.   

    Download the activities and resources for Let's Get Functional - Context two: Visitors from overseas

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    including the social networking visitor profiles in order to find out more about the visitors from abroad.

    The Consumerham Advertiser

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    Download now

    can be used in this module to help students research visitor attractions and possible destinations for their visitors.

    • Visitor profiles

      Meet the visitors from abroad by seeing their likes and dislikes on their social networking profiles. This will help your students to plan activities within their personal budget and to their individual liking.

      Please note that these profiles are also included as a resource sheet in the Context 2 download.

      close button
      Frances Dwyer

      About me

      Gender: Female
      Age: 21
      Location: University of Limerick
      Hometown: Kilkenny
      Employer: Student of Business and Modern Foreign Languages (waiting for my results!)
      Budget: €250

      Activities & interests

      • Wheelchair camogie
      • Swimming
      • Reading
      • Meeting people
      • Dancing and live music
      • Fishing
      • Stand-up comedy
      • Premiership football

      Frances Dwyer

      Personal statement

      I can’t wait to get over and see you all! A whole week to do whatever I want! I’ve just finished my degree and I haven’t got a job yet so have to be a bit careful with the money. My wheelchair doesn’t really slow me down but I have to plan carefully.

      I might even want to have a look around for a job while I’m with you. I’d love to see a live gig while I’m over there but I know that can be expensive. Still, the Euro is pretty good against Sterling so I should do alright. I’ve got €250 to spend.


      Snow Patrol, U2, The Corrs, The Pogues, The Script


      Le Grande Meulines, Tickling the English, The Picture of Dorian Grey, Anything by Flann O'Brien


      Toy Story 3, Diva, The Wind that Shakes the Barley, Notting Hill, The Quiet Man


      The Wire, Garda Patrol, Match of the Day, GAA Live, The Apprentice, Fair City

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      Samuel Ola

      About me

      Gender: Male
      Age: 21
      Location: Lagos, Nigeria
      Hometown: Benin City, Nigeria
      Employer: Engineering Student - graduating shortly
      Budget: 84,000 Naira

      Activities & interests

      • Chess
      • Wildlife
      • Politics
      • Crime stories in the news
      • Facebook

      Samuel Ola

      Personal statement

      I’m looking forward to the exchange placement at a British university but also want to see some of the sights while I am staying with you. One thing I definitely want to do is to visit a theme park as we don’t really have them in Nigeria. Anything to do with wildlife would also be great. As a student I obviously don’t have a huge budget but as it’s my coming of age year my family have been very generous and I can afford 84,000 Naira for any trips out. All of this will also help with my National Youth Service Corps year after I graduate – you can find out more about this at Can’t wait to meet you.


      Rap, Soul


      Manga comics, Agatha Christie, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Raymond Chandler, Chinua Achebe


      The Godfather, Pulp Fiction, The Shawshank Redemption, The Usual Suspects, Film noir, James Bond series


      CSI Miami/New York, etc., Poirot, Miss Marple, The Sopranos, Big Brother (Nigeria), David Attenborough series

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      Sam Markiewicz

      About me

      Gender: Male
      Age: 35
      Location: Gdansk, Poland
      Hometown: Gdansk, Poland
      Employer: Polnord Energobudowa (construction company)
      Budget: 1440 Zlotych
      Married to: Sonia Markiewicz

      Activities & interests

      • Spending time with the family
      • Extreme sports
      • Angling
      • Doing Sudoku and crosswords
      • Learning English at evening classes

      Sam Markiewicz

      Personal statement

      Sonia has wanted to visit Britain ever since I’ve known her so it will be great to fulfil that ambition, even though a week will just fly by. What she doesn’t know is that I’ve secretly saved another 1440 Zlotych to add to the budget and I’d really like to do something special for her as a surprise (perhaps something romantic) as it will be her birthday while we’re there. Basically I’m happy doing whatever Sonia wants to do.


      Jazz, Modern Classical


      Władysław Reymont, Franz Kafka, Charles Dickens, John Steinbeck


      Films of Krzysztof Kiéslowski, Schindler’s List


      The History Channel, Documentaries

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      Sonia Markiewicz

      About me

      Gender: Female
      Age: 32
      Location: Gdansk, Poland
      Hometown: Wrocklaw, Poland
      Employer: Arla Foods (food processing)
      Budget: 2500 Zlotych
      Married to: Sam Markiewicz

      Activities & interests

      • Looking after the two children (8 and 6)
      • Charity work
      • Gardening
      • Visiting art galleries
      • Learning English at evening classes

      Sonia Markiewicz

      Personal statement

      Our first holiday for nine years and my first time out of Poland, I can’t wait. Will miss the children while they stay with grandma but this is my dream trip so I want to see as many different things as time allows. One absolute must though is visiting a British stately house and garden. We’ve been saving hard and have 2500 Zlotych to spend.


      Polish folk music, New Age


      J.R.R. Tolkien, J.K. Rowling, Douglas Adams, Stephen King


      Disney animation, Harry Potter series, E.T., Star Wars (Whatever the kids are watching really!)


      Dr Who, Star Trek, The X Files, Londyńczycy

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      Balvinder Dhadli

      About me

      Gender: Male
      Age: 28
      Location: Rupnagar, Punjab
      Hometown: New Delhi
      Employer: Indian Institute of Technology Ropar - Lecturer in Computer Science and Space Engineering
      Budget: Rps 63,000
      Married to: Pamneesh Dhadli

      Activities & interests

      • Cricket
      • Space exploration
      • Tennis
      • Athletics
      • Artificial Intelligence

      Balvinder Dhadli

      Personal statement

      Getting a chance to come over and see you all is just fantastic! I’ve got to lecture for the first week at The National Space Centre in Leicester but then a whole week with you guys will be fantastic! Is there any 20/20 cricket nearby? No matter, I’d really love to see as much of the local sights as we can manage. Can we mange a trip to a Science or Technology Museum? It’ll be so cool!


      Linkin Park, Green Day, Coldplay, A. R. Rahman


      I, Robot, 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Last Sunset, Superfreakonomics, The Argumentative Indian


      The Matrix, Singh is King, The Shining, 3 Idiots, Star Trek IV, Dhoom 2, 2001: A Space Odyssey


      Discovery Channel, Ten Sport, Big Bang Theory, Raashee!

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      Pamneesh Dhadli

      About me

      Gender: Female
      Age: 25
      Location: Rupnagar, Punjab
      Hometown: Rupnagar, Punjab
      Employer: Rupnager New Model High School – Teacher of English
      Budget: Rps 63,000
      Married to: Balvinder Dhadli

      Activities & interests

      • Reading
      • International school links
      • Kabaddi
      • Microfinance
      • Tennis

      Pamneesh Dhadli

      Personal statement

      Balvinder’s so excited about coming over and so am I; I’m looking forward to catching up on my reading while he’s lecturing! If we can manage it, while we are with you I’d love to see a Shakespeare performance and visit a real British castle. No Cricket Please! (Don’t tell Balvinder!) I’d really like some time to do proper shopping as well! I’ve sorted the money out and as the flights are paid for by the University we’ll have Rps 63,000 to spend.


      A. R. Rahman, Michael Jackson, Sajjad Ali, Beyonce Knowles


      Pride and Prejudice, Victoria and Abdul, Of Course I Love You….Till I Find Someone Better, The Alchemist, A Tale of Two Cities, Brideshead Revisited


      Om Shanti Om, Slum Dog Millionaire, Welcome, Love Aaj Khal, The Kite Runner, Citizen Kane, Raajneeti


      India’s got Talent, Pavrita Rishta, Zee TV, BBC World

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      Jack Rofell

      About me

      Gender: Male
      Age: 45
      Location: Winnipeg, Canada
      Hometown: Winnipeg, Canada
      Employer: Royal Canadian Mounted Police (Mountie)
      Budget: $1600 (Canadian Dollars)
      Married to: Miriam Rofell

      Activities & interests

      • Tai Kwan Do
      • Curling
      • Dog training
      • Climbing

      Jack Rofell

      Personal statement

      I love getting out and about and hate being indoors. I’m really keen to see lots of sights in England and would love to see some soccer! One thing I definitely must do is some rock climbing. I’ve climbed on every continent except Europe so this is my big chance. Work’s been pretty tough this year so I’m also looking forward to a bit of a rest as well. We’ll be with you for a week and have $1600 (Canadian Dollars) to spend.


      AC/DC, Bon Jovi, Led Zeppelin, Sarah McLachlan




      Action Adventure, Lassie, Ice Age, Hot Fuzz


      Ice Hockey coverage, Sports TV, 24, Lost

      close button
      Jack Rofell

      About me

      Gender: Female
      Age: 44
      Location: Winnipeg, Canada
      Hometown: York, UK
      Employer: School Board Member
      Budget: $1600 (Canadian Dollars)
      Married to: Jack Rofell

      Activities & interests

      • Walking
      • Photography
      • Cookery
      • Needlepoint

      Miriam Rofell

      Personal statement

      This will be my first trip back to England since I was a teenager so I’m really excited! A key activity will, of course, be spending a whole day with my mum and taking her out for a meal somewhere posh. The chance to get some time to do some proper photography in beautiful England is my dream! I really want to revisit some English cooking (I miss my Yorkshire puds) and going to the theater!


      Mozart, Bach, Folk Guitar, Newton Faulkner


      Jane Austen, Maeve Binchley


      Love Actually, Pride and Prejudice, Casablanca, Gladiator


      Ice Hockey coverage, Curling coverage, Rome, House


    • Off timetable event

      Britain’s got functional skills - a key stage 3 and 4 enrichment day

      Published May 2012
      Produced by: pfeg

      These resources contain everything you need to run a ½ day, off-timetable event that helps year 9, 10 & 11 students develop functional English and Mathematics skills.

      View resource images Britain’s got functional skills cover

      View suitability, curriculum information & comments for this resource.

  • Context three: Insurance... who needs it?

    This context gives an opportunity for students to explore the need for insurance (e.g. extended warranties for electrical goods). They are also given the opportunity to drill down into the variables that affect the cost of holiday insurance, using a key resource – an online insurance simulation and accompanying spreadsheet.

    Download the activities and resources Let's Get Functional - Context three: Insurance...who needs it?

    Use the button below to download

    Download now

     and visit the insurance website at to see how insurance premiums are calculated.

    The Consumerham Advertiser

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    Download now

    contains an example of an extended warrantee 'advertorial' for the English content of this context.


    Whether you are comparing the cost of car insurance or the cost of looking after your pets, we all use insurance websites, but how exactly do they work?  We've mocked up our very own insurance website, with supporting activity ideas, so your students can find out the facts behind the figures for themselves.

  • Consumerham Advertiser

    This fictitious freesheet is provided to be used throughout the functional skills resources. Containing a wealth of editorial content, advertisements and jobs, it will be of use to students as they consider their budgets, explore terms and conditions for purchases and examine hire and buy options for various items.

    The Advertiser is available to download for classroom use, which also includes a Word template so that students can create a local version of the Consumerham Advertiser, if required. Many of the activities throughout Let’s Get Functional make reference to the Consumerham Advertiser and require students to navigate their way around the resource to find the information they need in a purposeful and real-life way.

    Download the  Consumerham Advertiser

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    Download now


About Let's Get Functional

Let's Get Functional was originally developed in 2011 by a team of pfeg consultants who worked collaboratively to create this resource, drawing on individual subject knowledge and collective experience of personal finance education. It has been revised and updated in 2013.

The authors of Let’s Get Functional all have a strong teaching background and work closely with teachers in secondary schools on a daily basis. 

Grateful thanks to the Money Advice Service whose funding has made this resource possible. The Money Advice Service was previously known as the Consumer Financial Education body (CFEB). As part of the National Strategy for Financial Capability, CFEB contracted pfeg to deliver the Learning Money Matters programme. CFEB was established by the Financial Services Authority (FSA) in April 2010 to take forward the national strategy. On 4 April 2011 CFEB became the Money Advice Service, a new independent advice organisation here to help everyone understand and manage their money better.

Thanks to the authors, staff and students of Roding Valley High School, Loughton and Rydon Community College, Pulborough.




Advanced Level qualifications are available for 16-18-year-olds in various subjects that help students make a successful transition to university and future careers. Reforms introduced in 2015 and phased in over 3 years, will see A levels becoming linear in nature with all external assessment at the end of the course – normally by examination.


Schools that have converted from formally local authority schools to become directly accountable to the Secretary of State for Education. They may receive some additional financial support from charities or corporate sponsors. Academies also include Free Schools, University Technical Colleges and others. In return for more freedoms, schools may be required to assist in school improvement activities in other local schools.

Accidental damage

In addition to buildings and contents insurance most companies will insure accidental damage for an additional fee. It covers the damage done to your possessions by accident, for example, you spill a pot of paint over your carpet.


Where you live; including with parents, in a hostel, renting or buying.


Arrangement with a bank or building society to hold your money in an account and allow you to take it when required.


Insurance professionals who analyse risk and its financial impact

Advanced Tech levels

Tech levels are rigorous advanced (level 3) technical qualifications on a par with A Levels and recognised by employers. They are for students aged 16 plus that want to specialise in a specific industry or prepare for a particular job.


Annual Equivalent Rate. Shows what the interest rate would be if the interest on savings were paid and added to savings at the end of each year. Used as a way of comparing different financial products; the higher the AER, the better the return on your savings.


Assessment for Learning - teachers planning tasks, the outcomes of which provide information that can be used to improve the next element of teaching and learning. Activities could include questioning, discussions with students, marking work or tests with detailed feedback to students on how to improve.

After tax

What you are left with after tax has been paid.


A contents insurance policy covering possessions even when they are away from your home.

Alternative credit

Credit arrangements outside the mainstream. Usually extremely costly.


Every year.


A special type of investment which can pay out a regular sum over a lifetime. Usually taken out with pensions upon retirement.


Annual Percentage Rate. The total cost of a loan, taking into account the interest you pay, any other charges and when the payments fall due. Used as a way of comparing different financial product; the higher the APR, the dearer the loan.


Money owed which was not paid when due.


Advanced Subsidiary Level qualification are stand alone one year courses that provide an opportunity for young people following A level subjects to introduce breadth into their studies.


Everything that a person owns that has a monetary value (e.g. property, investments, cash).


Attainment targets set out expected standards of pupils' performance at end of each key stage. Not all National Curriculum subject have attainment targets


Automated Teller Machine; also known as ‘cash machines’ or 'the hole in the wall'. An electronic machine that dispenses cash and other banking services using a cash withdrawal card and a personal identification number (PIN).

Attainment statements

The statements that comprise the attainment targets

Attendance allowance

A benefit for people over 65 with physical or mental care needs.

Available credit

This is the amount of money a store card or credit card company will lend you immediately.


Bankers Automated Clearing System. A fast service that allows transfers of money to be done electronically from one bank to another e.g. salaries.


The amount of money you have in your account at any particular time or which you owe on your credit or store card or on a purchase after the deposit has been paid. It will be shown on your statement.

Balance brought forward

The balance that was shown on your last statement.

Balance transfer

Moving the balance from one credit card to another with a lower interest rate, in order to pay less.


A bank is a government-licensed and regulated financial institution whose main activity is to lend money in order to stimulate economic growth, and, in turn, profit. In order to lend money the bank must take a certain amount of deposits which it does in the form of current and savings accounts opened by individuals and businesses.

Bank account

A service from a bank or building society which lets you pay in money, get cash out and pay bills etc. The bank keeps a record of all transactions.

Bank loan

Money that you borrow from your bank for a pre-arranged interest rate.

Bank of England

The UK’s central bank responsible for setting the base interest rate in order to try and keep the economy stable. This base rate influences the rates offered to savers and borrowers by other financial institutions such as banks.

Bank statement

A piece of paper that shows all the money that has been paid into an account and paid out from an account. Statements are usually sent each month.


A piece of paper money, where the bank will pay the amount of money shown on the note.


A court order given when someone cannot pay their debts they owe: an official receiver takes control of your money and property, and deals with your creditors.

Base rate

The interest rate set by the Bank of England, which other financial institutions (such as banks) use for guidance when setting their rates.

Baseline assessment

Assessment / tests to find out what learners know or can do before teaching begins of a particular subject / topic. Used to track pupils progress. Especially used to refer to the assessments undertaken during the EYFS (early years foundation stage), normally aged 3 to 5


A person named in a life assurance policy.


A government system which provides practical help and financial support for members of the public. For example benefits are available for: those who are unemployed and looking for work (job seekers’ allowance), additional income when an individual’s earnings are low (income support), bringing up children (child benefit), retired (state pensions), care for someone, are ill or have a disability.


A piece of paper that shows how much money is owed for something eg gas, electricity etc.


Sometimes called 'fixed interest securities' or simply 'stock' are loans to an organisations such as a company, a local authority or the government. Bonds are a form of investment, usually with less risk than shares.


A bonus is a payment made to an employee in addition to a basic salary.


Getting money from someone else that you intend to pay back after some time. You might borrow informally from friends and family or take out a formal loan with a written agreement from a bank or building society.

Bounced cheque

A cheque is said to ‘bounce’ when a bank refuses to pay the named person on a cheque due to either lack of funds in your account or the cheque is written incorrectly.

Bridging loan

A temporary loan which allows you to buy a new property before selling your old property.


An amount of money set aside for something or it can also be a summary of intended expenditure and income to cover it.

Building society

An organisation that is owned by its members, some or whom will be customers saving or borrowing from the society. They often offer a range of financial services and are similar to banks.

Buildings insurance

Type of insurance that pays out if the structure of your home is damaged. For example your house is damaged by fire.


An ammount of money given to a student by a college or university, to pay for them to study.


When a person buys a property with the intention of renting it out to someone else. The rent is often used to pay off a mortgage.


Citizens Advice Bureau; a local voluntary organisation offering unbiased free advice on a range of problems including finances, legal matters etc.


The amount of money you originally have, save or invest, before any interest, other return or loss is taken into account. It could also be an amount of money that you have borrowed.

Capital Gains Tax

The tax paid on profits from selling investments such as shares if their value is over a certain amount

Carer's Allowance

A benefit for people who provide regular care to disabled people in their own home.


Cash is the simplest way of buying something. It is not a good idea to send cash payments through the post, but you can pay bills such as gas and electricity in cash by using the Giro payment system available through post offices and banks.

Cash inflow

The receipts of your business. If your receipts are bigger than your payments, you have a net cash inflow.

Cash outflow

Payments out of your business. If your receipts are less than your payments, you have a net cash outflow.


Cashcards or cashpoint cards, are the simplest type of account cards. They can usually only be used at cash machines (with a personal identification number, or PIN) to withdraw cash, check your balance or print out a mini-statement.


A record of all the money coming in, less all the payments as they are made, measured over a particular time.


Goods are shown in the pages of the catalogue. You can buy them on credit and pay in weekly or monthly instalments. The goods will usually be delivered by post. The price of the goods in the catalogue may be more than the price in a shop.


County Court Judgement. An order made by a judge to settle a claim brought in the county court.


Clearing House Automated Payment System – a method for transferring money from one bank account to another on the same day. There is usually a charge for this service


Fees and interest which you have to pay, for example, when you borrow money or buy on credit.


Cheques are a paper based payment method often used for buying goods, paying bills and as gifts. However the use of cheques has declined over past 20 years and fewer retailers accept cheques, as other payment methods are more efficient and effective.

Cheque guarantee card

A plastic card issued by a bank or building society that guarantees the amount of money on any cheque you write will be paid whether or not there is enough money in the account. There is a limit to the amount that is guaranteed - £100 or £250 are common amounts.

Child Benefit

A tax-free benefit paid to most people with children.

CiC (Children in care)

Children under 18 years of age who have been provided with care by children's services, often with foster parents.

Circle time

Usually used with primary school children; where children may sit in a circle to discuss social and emotional topics such as bullying or money. Supports the development of children?s listening skills. Used by teachers throughout the age range for personal, social, health and economic education.


Clearing is the time it takes for the bank to complete a transaction, for example, transfer money from one account to another.


Things you own of value that can be used to secure a loan; for example a property.

Common Inspection Framework

This sets out how Ofsted inspects maintained schools, academies, free schools in England. Introduced in September 2015, the framework outlines a four point grading system that will be used by inspectors to make the judgement: grade 1(outstanding); grade 2 (good); grade 3 ( requires improvement); and grade 4 (inadequate).

Compound interest

The usual type of interest paid on savings and loans, based on the capital plus the interest already paid so far, so the savings or the loan will grow by increasing amounts (unless money is taken out or the loan paid off).

Comprehensive insurance

A comprehensive insurance policy is more expensive than a third party insuance only policy because it provides cover for accidental damage to your own car in addition to the third party cover.

Comprehensive school

Secondary schools which educates all local children regardless of their ability. A schools intake can vary dependent on popularity and location.

Consolidation loan

A loan which combines all your credit card payments, housing arrears, loan repayments and household bills into one monthly payment.


When you buy something you are a consumer.

Consumer society

A society in which people place a high value on possessions and in which they are encouraged to purchase more

Contents insurance

You buy contents insurance to cover your possessions. Some policies will pay for damaged items to be replaced as new – although the insurer may send you a voucher for a set value for you to replace the item at a certain store rather than give money. The amount you pay will depend on where you live, how big your house is and whether you have a lot of valuables.

Core subjects

English, mathematics and science.

Corporation tax

The tax paid by business owners on their profits.

Council tax

Tax paid to the local council for local services such as libraries, police, waste collection etc.

Council tax benefit

Helps those on low incomes pay their Council Tax


Continuing professional development - involves activities that develops teachers? knowledge / understanding, and their effectiveness in their professional lives.


An account ‘in credit’ means that there is money in it that is available to be spent. If you obtain goods or services ‘on credit’ it means that someone (for example, a bank or credit institution) has given you the money as a loan to make the purchase.

Credit cards

A small plastic card available from most banks, and allow you to borrow money up to a certain limit. When you buy something with your credit card, the amount you spend is added to your total borrowing. Every month you are sent a statement to show how much you have borrowed and how much you need to repay. If you don't repay the full amount, you will start paying interest.

Credit history / record

A record of loans you have taken out or credit card payments made or missed. This information is stored by credit reference agencies, which supply details of your credit score/rating to financial institutions when you take out further loans.

Credit limit

The maximum amount the store card or credit company will lend you altogether at any time.

Credit rating

An estimate of how risky it would be to lend a person or an organisation money based on their credit history / record.

Credit reference agency

An agency that holds information on adults. This information includes public records (e.g. Electoral Roll entries), credit account information (e.g. repayment records for loans, credit, mortgage, hire purchase) and records of credit checks that have previously been made.

Credit repair companies

Companies offering, for a charge, to advise you how to erase bad credit from your credit record.

Credit risk

The chance that you might not repay your loan or credit.

Credit score

A score given by a shop or credit agency based on your personal and financial circumstances. It helps them to decide whether you are likely to repay the loan you are asking for.

Credit Union

A non-profit making co-operative savings association that lends money to its members at low interest and encourages saving.


A creditor is someone to whom a debt is due. This word is often used to describe the person that lends you money.


Child Support Agency; responsible for ensuring that parents who live apart meet their financial responsibilities for their children.


Child Tax Credit; a means-tested benefit for people with children. Introduced to combat child poverty.


Money in any form which is used as a way of buying goods and services e.g. Euro, Pound, Dollars. Different countries use different currencies.

Current account

A low-interest bank or building society account which helps you to manage your day-to-day money; pay bills, receive money and keep money secure.

Customs duty

Customs Duty is a tax paid when you bring certain goods into the country.


Money which is taken out of an account is ‘debited from’ that account.

Debit cards

A small plastic card used to buy things without using cash or a cheque; when paying in shops, shopping by phone or on the internet. When you make a payment or withdraw cash with your debit card, the money is taken straight out of your account electronically. You cannot borrow money on a debit card.


If you are in debt you owe money to someone or an organisation.


A person who owes money.


To default on a loan means to fail to make payments that are due.


Dependents are people who depend on you financially because they have no income. This is usually children who live with you, but it could be elderly relatives you care for.


Money that you pay into an account or a deposit is an initial payment which secures the purchase of something, normally a percentage of the total amount.


The way in which the currculum and teaching methods are ammended to meet the learning needs of individual students.


A qualification for 14 to 19 year-olds, offering a practical way of gaining skills for employment and university. Subject areas are available including; business administration and finance.

Direct debit

An instruction to your bank to release money from your account to pay bills and other amounts automatically. The billing company requests the money from the bank directly. You are told in advance in writing how much will be taken and the date it will be taken out of your account.

Disability living allowance

A tax-free benefit for people under 65 who have personal care needs or mobility problems.


Money which is taken off the price of something. You may need to collect coupons or vouchers before claiming the discount. Sometimes shops give a discount to their employees.


Money from a company’s profits paid to people who have shares in the company. Most shares pay an interim and final dividend.


Money transfers made electronically or over the internet; for example direct debits.

Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS)

The time before statutory school age and including the year children start school, usually age 3 to 5. The curriculum is less formal and relies heavily on play. There is a framework of learning for teachers to follow and learning about money is part of that framework.

Economic wellbeing

A person’s sense of financial security, including avoiding poverty, achieving employment and understanding personal finance


The UKs economy refers to its production and sale of goods and services and the way the government manages its money.


Someone who is paid to work for an organisation, company or someone else. The person who you work for is your employer.

Employee NIC

Employee National Insurance Contributions; is a form of additional taxation that is taken off your pay before you get it. You usually need to make contributions before you can claim certain state benefits, such as State Pension when you retire.


Someone who pays someone else to work for them


A life insurance policy that pays out a lump sum at the end of a set period or on death, whichever comes first.

English Baccalaureate

The EBacc is a school performance measure, allowing parents and others to see how many pupils in a school get a grade C or above in core academic subjects (English; mathematics; history or geography; a science; and a language) in any government-funded school in England. The Government has announced that all pupils who start year 7 in September 2015 will take the EBacc subjects when they reach their GCSEs in 2020.


Running a business or, in education, learning how to do so


An entrepreneur is someone who starts their own business and makes money through risk and initiative.


The value of a property over the amount of the mortgage secured against it; if property prices go up, your equity increases. Negative equity is where the value of your property is less than the amount of the mortgage still to be paid off.

Equity withdrawal

The process where mortgage levels are increased to release extra funds


An estimate is an educated guess. An electricity or gas company will work out an estimate on the basis of how much electricity or gas you have used at this time of year in the past. On some bills in the ‘meter readings present’ column, it may have an ‘E’ before the number wihch means the figure is an estimate.

Ethical bank

A bank that uses its investments and loans to support projects that benefit society or the environment.

Ethical consumer

Someone who thinks before they buy a product or service about how it has been produced and the costs to the environment or other people (e.g. fair trade). By buying something we effectively ‘vote’ to have more of it, made in the same way. By boycotting such goods we send a signal that we do not approve of how the product has been made, packaged or distributed.


The Euro is the currency of several European countries.

Exam groups/boards

The companies responsible for preparing and marking exam papers for GCSE, A Levels and other externally moderated qualifications.


Some insurance policies require you to pay an agreed amount of the cost of any damage if you make a claim. The insurer will then pay for anything more than this. Agreeing to a higher excess generally reduces premiums.

Exchange rate

The exchange rate tells you how much you get when exchanging one currency for another (e.g. one British pound might be worth 1.5 US Dollars).


These describe a possible event or circumstance not covered by an insurance policy. Almost all insurance policies have exclusions.


The amount of money you spend on goods or services.


The sums of money that you need to have to spend so that you can live.

Expiry date

Appears on plastic cards - after this date your card cannot be used.

Extended school

Schools offering services out of normal school hours to support the needs of local families and their communities; such as breakfast clubs or after school clubs.


The fair-trade movement aims to make sure that workers and producers get paid fairly.


A sum of money you pay, for example, to have a loan or credit arranged for you.

Final salary pension

A pension where the amount you get is worked out on the basis of how much you earn in the last (or last few) years of service and your length of service.

Finance company

A company which makes money by lending to people who want to buy goods on credit. Most shops use finance companies for their credit deals.

Financial adviser

A financial adviser is a person or company who can assess your financial needs and give advice about money and suitable financial products. Some advisers can also manage investments for you. An independent financial adviser (IFA) is one not working for specific bank or other seller of financial products, and can in theory therefore offer a wider range of options.

Financial capability

A term used to describe a person’s general awareness of issues relating to money, including keeping track of finances and choosing financial products and services.

Financial capability

having the knowledge, skills and attidudes in relation to money necessary to thrive in society

Financial education

Teaching and learning leading to financial capability. Lessons planned separately or as part of another subject to help learners understand money

Financial exclusion

Lack of access to mainstream banking and other financial services

Financial records

Documents that show information about money earned, spent or owed, including statements, bills, receipts etc.

Financial risk

Some financial products, such as shares in new businesses, are risky because their value can vary (rise or fall) over time.

Financial situation

Your financial situation refers to how much money you receive in wages and/or benefits and how much money you have saved up. It also includes how much money you owe and any financial arrangements you have made for the future, such as a pension. Sometimes people will also ask you about your regular outgoings, such as the amount you pay in rent.

Financial year

The 12-month period a business uses for recording its accounts. It is often the same as the calendar year or the tax year, but does not have to be.

Fixed costs

Costs that remain the same no matter how much is used.

Fixed interest rate

An interest rate guaranteed to stay the same for an agreed period, regardless of whether bank rates go up or down.


The right to sell the products or services of an existing business , independently of that business, in a particular location.


A crime where people have tricked or lied to other people, or to an organisation, in order to get money.

Free buffer zone

Some bank or building society accounts have a free buffer zone; a temporary overdraft for which you will not be charged for being slightly overdrawn.

Free schools

Schools that have been set by parents and others in a local community where it is believed there is not already a school which meets their needs. Each school becomes an independent state school, funded by the Department for Education


Financial Services Authority. The UK’s financial watchdog which regulates how financial institutions are allowed to conduct their business.


Free school meals provided to students of parents/carers who receive particular government benefits.

Functional subjects/functional skills

Qualifications aimed to improve the level of competence of pupils in the literacy, numeracy and ICT needed for life skills. Functional skills are available as stand-alone qualifications and are now integral to GCSE English, mathematics and ICT and Diplomas. Functional Skills assessments consist of the application of skills within real life contexts, eg; learning mathematics skills through money.


Betting money in the hope of making more money; for example through the lottery, fruit machines or casino games.


General Certificate of Secondary Education - national academic examinations of basic secondary education usually taken by 16-year-olds.

Gifted and talented

The identified top 5 - 10% of pupils in each year group that have a high ability in one or more academic subject. Those with a high ability in sport, music, visual arts and/or performing arts are deemed talented.


Gilts are issued by the government to help fund its spending. It is a fairly secure way to invest your money. Also known as government bond.


A giro is a banking term for a method of payment. A giro is given by the payer to his or her bank, which transfers funds into the payee's bank account.

Graduate earnings premium

The extra earnings that come with having a university degree


An total amount of money before any deductions, such as tax or National Insurance.

Gross income/pay

Your wages before anything is taken away from it such as income tax and National Insurance Contributions.

Gross interest

Interest on savings before any tax is taken off.

Gross profit

In a business - the money you make from selling your goods and services less the cost of materials or making the goods.

Head of Year or Head of House (HOY or HOH)

In secondary schools they have the main responsibility to monitor, guide and support pupils? academic and social development across a year group or house and to lead a team of form tutors.

Health insurance

There are many types of health insurances; some give you a lump sum if you become ill, others pay you a regular income while you can’t work, some pay for your treatment at a private hospital so that you do not have to wait a long time for treatment.

Hire purchase (HP)

A way of paying for goods over time if you don’t have all the money up front (often used for cars): an initial deposit is usually paid, followed by a series of regular payments to cover the balance and any interest over a fixed amount of time, the same as repaying a loan. You would not own the car until you have completed the hire purchase agreement.


Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs - the government department responsible for tax collection and benefit payments.


Head of Department or Head of faculty. In secondary schools they have the main responsibilty to raise the standards of pupil attainment and achievement within their curriculum area, to monitor and support pupil progress and lead, manage and develop their curriculum area.

Honour a cheque

A bank honours a cheque by paying out the money as you have requested. A cheque will only be honoured when it has been guaranteed or there is enough money in the account, or you have an agreed overdraft.

Housing benefit

A benefit for people on low incomes to help them pay their rent

Identity theft

Identity theft is a crime of fraud where somebody elses personal details are used to open bank accounts, get credit cards, take out loans, claim benefits etc.


Independent Financial Adviser. An adviser offering advice on investment products from all companies in the marketplace, instead of being limited to selling those of just one firm.

Incapacity benefit

A benefit for people who cannot work and do not get Statutory Sick Pay.


Income is the total money you have coming in, such as; wages, benefits (like income support or child benefit) and child maintenance payments and investments.

Income support

Income Support is a government benefit paid to people on very low incomes tp support them with living costs.

Income tax

A tax which is payable on almost all types of income, at various rates depending on the level of income.

Independent learning

Learning that supports students to think for themselves; when a student gains knowledge by their own effort and develops the ability for enquiry and critical evaluation.


Index-linked means that the value of the financial product or service (e.g. pension, savings certificate) is increased in line with the Retail Price Index or inflation.


A continual increase in the general level of prices. This means over time a given amount of money will buy fewer goods and services.

Informal economy

Paid employment that is hidden or not declared for tax purposes, also known as the hidden economy or cash in hand work.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

A subject that is part of the National Curriculum which deals with teaching about technology.


The passing on of money or assets when someone dies. It can also include gifts given while the person is still alive.

Inheritance tax

Tax on the value of a deceased person's assets. Tax may also be imposed on any gifts made during the seven years before death.

Inland revenue

The Inland Revenue is the organisation which collects UK taxes.


In-service education and training - training for teachers to support with the development of their skills in teaching and learning. Also referred to as CPD


When someone is unable to pay their debts.


Weekly or monthly repayments made to pay off a loan or goods bought on credit.

Instant access account

A savings account where you can get your money back without needing to give any notice; they generally attract lower rates of interest than accounts where notice is required.


Insurance involves regular payments to a company so that you can claim money to cover the cost of a possible event such as an accident.

Insurance cover

Insurance cover describes the situations you are insured against. For example, if you have a car you might have comprehensive cover or only be covered for third party, fire and theft.

Insurance premiums

The money you pay to the insurance company to make sure you are covered. Premiums are paid monthly, quarterly or annually.


The reward you get for lending your money to say, a bank or a building society. Also the cost you pay when you borrow money through a loan or credit agreement. It is usually worked out as a percentage (the interest rate) of the money you have borrowed. For instance, if an interest rate is 10 per cent and you borrowed £100, the interest you have to pay will be 10 per cent of £100, or £10.

Interest rates

This is the percentage that is paid on savings or loans. For example, a savings account offering an interest rate of 10% would give you a better return than one offering 5%. Similarly a loan with an interest rate of 20% will cost more than one with a rate of 15%.

Interest-only mortgage

A mortgage where only the interest due is paid off regularly. The original sum is paid off in full at the end of the term of the loan.


Dying without a valid will, in which case the law decides how assets will be distributed.


To use money to buy something that may increase in value over time, for example jewellery, property or shares in a company.


Products that sometimes involve some risk of losing your original money but give you the opportunity of better returns than you get from savings.


Insurance Premium Tax; a tax placed on some insurance premiums.


Individual Savings Account; an account where you don’t pay tax on interest earned. There is a set limit of how much you can save in an ISA each tax year.


Information Technology - a computing, telecommunications and broadcasting subject that is part of the National Curriculum.


Initial Teacher Education. Courses the students in ITT (Initial Teacher Training) take. This can take place in a variety of settings, including Universities and Training Schools.


Initial Teacher Training. Training undertaken at universities or Teaching Schools to gain qualified teacher status (QTS). This enables them to teach in schools.

Job seeker's allowance

A benefit paid by the government to people who are unemployed but available and actively looking for employment.

Key facts illustration

Gives the terms and conditions of a financial product such as a mortgage or pension in a standard format so that simple comparisons can be made between products.

Key Stage (KS)

The National Curriculum in English schools is divided into Key Stages for all children. Currently in a primary school Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is from age 3 to 5, Key Stage 1 is taught during Years 1 and 2 (ages 5-7) and Key Stage 2 in Years 3, 4, 5 and 6 (ages 7-11). In a secondary school Key Stage 3 is taught during Years 7, 8 and 9 (ages 11-14) and Key Stage 4 in Years 10 and 11 (ages 14-16). Lastly, Key Stage 5 covers ages 16-18.


Local Education Authority - see LA or local authority.

Learning Money Matters (LMM)

A pfeg project which ran in secondary schools from 2006-11


An amount of money owed at a particular point in time

Life insurance

A type of insurance that pays out a lump sum to your family if you die. Some mortgage lenders oblige borrowers to have this kind of cover; the insurer will pay off the mortgage with a lump sum if you die. You can insure for more than the cost of the mortgage to make sure that your family has some additional funds to live off.

Lifetime annuity

A regular income for the rest of your life.

Limited company

A registered business, run by private individuals, entitled to employ other people. It can sell shares to private individuals to raise capital and the amount of these, limits any financial liability it has.

Liquid assets

Possessions that can easily or quickly be converted into cash.


A sum of money which you borrow from a person or organisation, usually with interest.

Loan shark

Someone who lends money wthout having a licence to do so from the Office of Fair Trading (OFT). They charge extremely high rates of interest and often use threats to get money if payments are missed.

Local authority (LA)

The statutory body responsible for many aspects of state funded education within a locality (sometimes refered to as local education authority). Academies and Free Schools have significant freedoms from Las

Looked After Children (LAC)

Children under 18 years of age who have been provided with care by children's services, often with foster parents.

Loyalty cards

Cards offered by some shops to encourage people to shop there. Every time you spend money at that shop you will be given 'points' on your card, which can be saved and later used to obtain discounts on shopping or other benefits such as air-miles.

Lump sum

A lump sum is a one-off payment. Some people have insurance policies that pay a lump sum if they have an accident or are ill. Other people prefer to have a policy that provides an income over a long period of time.

Maximum withdrawal

Most cash machines check your bank account and will not give you any more than there is in your account. There is also often a withdrawal limit of about, £250 per day.

Means test

An assessment of somebody’s income and savings, carried out in order to determine whether they should receive a benefit or financial aid.

Minimum payment

The minimum amount you must pay each month off your debt on credit or store card payments.


High pressure or misleading sales techniques which encourage people to buy financial products which may not be suitable for them.

Moderate Learning Difficulties (MLD)

Students with MLD receive additional support under special education needs (SEN) provision.

Modern Foreign Language (MFL)

A subject which forms part of the National Curriculum at Key Stages 3 and 4 in England.

Money purchase pension

A form of pension where your final pension depends on stock market performance. All personal pension plans operate in this way.


A type of secured loan usually taken out to buy property. If you do not keep up the mortgage repayments the mortgage company can repossess your house.

Motor insurance

There are two types of motor insurance. Third party insurance is the minimum insurance cover required if you drive a car on public roads. A comprehensive car policy covers your car and others for any accidental damage.

My Money

A pfeg project working in primary and secondary aged children, funded by the government, which ran from 2008-11

My Money Week

pfeg's national, themed activity week which brings money management to life in primary and secondary schools in England in the summer term

National Curriculum (NC )

The national curriculum is a set of subjects and standards used by primary and secondary schools in England so children learn the same things. It covers what subjects are taught and the standards children should reach in each subject. Other types of school like academies and private schools don’t have to follow the national curriculum. Academies must teach a broad and balanced curriculum including English, mathematics and science.

National insurance

A government deduction from your wages used to pay for benefits that you might need to claim; like incapacity benefit, and your state pension when you retire. A plastic card with your NI code is sent to all just before a 16th birthday. Employers and employees both pay contributions.

Negative equity

Having a mortgage which is larger than the value of your home.


Indicates a sum of money from which certain deductions have already been taken away eg tax.

Net income/pay

Your net income / pay is the total you earn in a week, month or year minus any deductions for tax and National Insurance.

Net interest

This is interest which has already had the tax taken off it.

Net profit

In a business - the gross profit less the overheads of the business measured over a particular time.

Net worth

The overall value of all assets minus all liabilities

Newly Qualified Teacher (NQT)

Teachers in England who have been qualified (QTS) for less than a year and undertake a statutory programme to ensure they are effective teachers.

Non-priority debts

Less important debts. The people you owe the money to can take you to court to recover the debts but cannot take any other action (such as cutting off a service or repossessing your home). They are likely to accept reasonable repayments.


The time you must wait to get your money after telling your bank or building society that you want to take it out. If you don't wait this time you may be penalised by, for example, losing interest.


National Vocational Qualification. Work-based awards that are achieved through assessment and training. NVQs are based on national occupational standards. These standards are statements of performance that describe what competent people in a particular occupation are expected to be able to do. They are awarded at five levels from 1 to 5 which assess basic work through to senior management activities.


Your job, work or profession e.g. bricklayer, checkout operator, teacher.

Occupational pension

A pension from a scheme set up by an employer, for example, a Teacher's Pension. Employees have to join the scheme to be eligible and may have to make contributions towards it. The scheme may pay a fraction of the final salary as a pension (calculated using the number of years worked) or build up a cash fund used to buy an annuity. An annuity is a special type of investment which can pay out a regular sum over the lifetime of the owner.

Offset mortgage

Is a type of mortgage where all the money from a persons bank accounts is set against the balance/loan owed, hence reducing payments.


The Office of Qualifications and Examinations Regulations. The Government's regulator of qualifications.


The Office For Standards in Education inspect and regulate services which care for and provide education for children of all ages. In schools Inspection focus on areas including: outcomes for learners; quality of teaching, learning and assessment; quality of leadership and management.


If you spend more money than you have in your current account you will go overdrawn. You can ask the bank to lend you some money for a short time at an agreed rate of interest , known as an arranged overdraft. If you go overdrawn without asking the bank in advance, they might refuse to pay your debits and charge you a high interest rate on the money that you owe them.


The costs of running a business, such as rent, office help, utility bills, advertising and distributing your goods and services.

P Scales

Are levels for recording SEN pupils achievement when they are working towards National Curriculum level 1 in all subjects.


This is a document that an employer has to provide when you leave a job so that the right amount of tax can be deducted from your earnings.


This is a summary of your pay and the tax that's been deducted in the tax year. Your employer should give you a P60 to keep as a record at the end of every tax year.

Paid employment

Work that receives a financial payment.

Pay period

The year is divided into equal pay periods starting from early April (which is also start of the tax year). If you are paid monthly, there are 12 pay periods; if weekly, 52.


Pay As You Earn; when tax is collected from an employer before the individual is paid their salary/wages.


The person the money is being paid to when you write out a cheque.

Paying-in slip

A paying-in slip is a bank form that needs to be completed when you pay cash or cheques into your account. Your bank or building society may give you a paying-in slip book, or some forms at the back of a chequebook or individual forms can be accessed at the bank.


Money you pay out, for example, on materials you need for your business, interest on loans, money for services such as gas and electricity.


The 'how' of teaching. Teaching is a skilled job, but different teachers have different styles of teaching. Effective teaching involves being able to match the style of teaching to the needs of the learner.


An income paid out after someone retires. The government gives tax relief on money paid into a scheme designed to provide a pension. A pension is a ‘locked box’ form of savings because you cannot spend any money in the fund until you have reached a minimum age (often 50). You can often take part of the proceeds as a cash lump sum but the rest must be taken as income. There are different types of pension schemes; occupational, stakeholder, state and personal.

Pension credit

A regular income provided by the Government as an additional benefit to support pensioners.

Pension deduction

Payments into a pension scheme will be taken automatically from your pay, if you pay into a pension scheme which is arranged by your employer. This will show up on your payslip as 'pension deductions'.

Per annum

Each year.

Performance tables

Published annual results of pupils' performance in national tests for schools and colleges in England.


In insurance, an event that causes financial loss

Personal finance

An individual’s financial affairs, including decisions about choosing products and services, savings and investments, spending and borrowing money.

Personal loan

Loans that you can use to pay for whatever you want (subject to certain restrictions).

Personal pension

A pension plan, not tied to a particular employment, that you can keep going even if you change job. You might have set up the plan yourself direct with a pension provider or it could have been arranged through your workplace. Some personal pensions are Stakeholder schemes.

Personalised learning

Attention is paid to every pupils learning styles and needs.

Phone service packages

Most phone companies offer different phone service packages to suit individual customers’ needs, such as different rates for national and international and free evening calls.

Physical and Severe Learning Difficulties (PSLD)

Pupils with PSLD receive additional support under special education needs (SEN) provision in mainstream or special school.


Personal Identification Number; a four-digit security number used with cash machine, credit cards and debit cards. It is like an electronic signature that stops anyone else using your account.


Public LimitedCompany; when a company sells its shares on the open market. The shares can be owned by the general public and bought and sold through the Stock Exchange.


Part of a lesson, usually at the end, where the teacher reviews learning that has taken place during the leson, often through questioning or looking together at some of the pupils' work.


Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties - pupils usually require total physical care from others and attend a special school.


Another word for plan or cover. For example when you take out an insurance policy, you receive a contract from the insurance company telling you what you are covered for, and how much money the company is prepared to pay out.

Policy agreement

This sets out everything that is agreed between you and the insurer. It will list everything that is covered as well as what is excluded. Read it carefully before buying the insurance.


Programme of Study - sets out what will be taught in each subject at each key stage in schools.


The amount you have to pay to buy the insurance.

Principal sum

The original amount of debt taken out

Priority debts

Debts which are more important than others because the law lets the people, you owe the money to, take serious action against you if you do not pay. Priority debts include things like a mortgage because your home could be repossessed if you do not keep up your mortgage repayments.


A estimate of how likely something is to occur.

Profit and loss

In a business, you make a profit if you sell goods or services for more than your costs. You make a loss if the proceeds are less than your costs.

Progressive taxation

Taxation which increases as your income goes up, such as income tax.

PSHE education

Personal, social, health and economic education (sometimes refered to as PSHEe) - a non-statutory part of the National Curriculum with some compulsory aspects. It is a programme to support pupils to develop fully as individuals, as members of families, social and economic communities. It aims to equip pupils with knowledge, understanding, attitudes and practical skills to live healthily, safely, productively and responsibly.

Public limited company (plc)

A limited company owned by shareholders, who can be members of the public.


Qualified Teacher Status is required by most schools to teach in England and Wales. Teaching is a graduate occupation and QTS can be gained in a variety of ways, including: a specific teaching degree, a postgratuate certificate and postgratuate training in a schools. QTS may not be required in Free Schools or indepentant schools.

Quarterly statements

Statements are written records of how much money you have in your account. The bank sends them to you automatically. A quarterly statement comes every 3 months.


RAISEonline provides annual analysis of school and pupil performance data; used for school self-assessment and target setting purposes.


Money coming in, for example, from selling goods and services or taking out a loan.


A recession is a fall in a country’s growth (and income) over several consecutive months (3 months in the UK).


Money paid to the owner of a property where you are living.

Repayment loan

A loan where you pay off a mixture of capital and interest each month.

Repayment mortgage

A repayment mortgage is a property loan, where regular payments pay off both the interest and a proportion of the original loan.


The sums of money you pay back weekly or monthly on your loan or credit.


When a mortgage lender takes back ownership of a property when a borrower is unable to afford their mortgage repayments.


The period in a person’s life when they stop working and start receiving a pension. To receive a state pension you must be at about 65 years old. Those with a private pension may be able to retire earlier if their pension fund is large enough.


Your return is the amount you get back when you invest money. A general rule is that the higher the return the more risky the investment.


Entitles a tenant to buy a property.


The protection that is given to you by law; for example, you have a right to compensation if your bank goes bust and you lose money.


Another name for chance or uncertainty. Types of risk include capital risk (your savings or investment fall in value), interest rate risk (the interest rate you agree to may not be good value in the future) and inflation risk (price levels will rise so the buying power of your savings or investments will fall). Shares and share-based investments (unit trusts) are considered higher risk because the value of your investment can fall (capital risk) but growth of these investments can outstrip inflation over medium/long-term.


Retail Price Index is a measure of the changing price of everyday items over time. This measure is taken as evidence of the rate of inflation.


Recommended Retail Price; the suggested price for goods in shops as set by the manufacturer.


Registered Social Landlord. A landlord registered with a Housing Corporation and providing social housing on a non-profit basis.


An amount of money paid to an employee for a job, usually paid directly into his or her bank account every month.


Any money you put aside for future use. This may be in a deposit account or under your bed.

Savings accounts

Savings are often kept in bank, building society or National Savings accounts. The amount you put in does not fall in value but may grow as interest is added.

School Development Plan (SDP)

Sets out what a school wishes to achieve within a time limit. Budgets will normally be arranged in line with the SDP

Secured loan

A secured loan means that the loan amount is being borrowed against the cost of something you own, for example, some homeowners borrow money against their houses. This way the lender can be sure that if you can’t make the repayments they’ll get their money back by reposessing the house.


Self-assessment means completing your own tax return.

Severe Learning Difficulties (SLD)

Pupils with SLD receive additional support under SEN provision, usually attending a special school. Their needs will be highly complex.


People who invest money in a company by buying shares of it, hence owning part of it.


An investment which makes you part-owner of a company, along with all the other shareholders. Some shares pay you an income (called dividends) regularly. With all shares you accept a capital risk, meaning if the share price rises, you will make a profit when you sell, but if the share price falls, you will make a loss.

Shariah banking

A way of banking following Islamic laws about money, such as profit and loss is to be shared, interest is not given or taken.


A signatory is a person who signs a document. For instance, if you are making an application and sign a form, you are the signatory.

Small print

A product's terms and conditions typically written in small letters and should be read carefully.

SMART targets

Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time-related targets.


Successive education acts state the school must make provision to ensure that there is Spiritual, Moral, Social and Cultural development of pupils and society.

Sole trader

An individual who runs their own business without any employees and without limited company status.

Sort code

A six-digit number (found on cheques, credit cards etc) that identifies the branch of a bank or building society .

Special Educational Needs (SEN)

Provision to support pupils with learning disabilities either through mainstream or specialised schools.

Stakeholder pension

A type of pension scheme designed to be good value for money by having low charges, flexible payments. Usually it means a personal pension that meets these conditions, but some types of occupational scheme can also be Stakeholder schemes.

Stamp duty land tax

A tax payable by the purchaser of a property; the amount payable is calculated as a percentage of the total purchase price.

Standard of living

The quality of life enjoyed by an individual or household.

Standing order

A method of paying regular amounts from your bank account automatically. You instruct your bank to pay the money to a particular person or company. It's your responsibility to change the payment if it needs to alter.

State pension

A pension paid to you when you retire by the government. The amount you get will depend on your National Insurance record (or that of your partner).


A document from the bank or building society which shows all your recent payments into and withdrawals from your account. You should check it with your own records.

Statutory sick pay (SSP)

SSP is the minimum amount employers must pay any employees unable to attend work due to illness.

Stock market

Where stocks and shares are bought and sold.

Store cards

Store cards are like credit cards, but are available from shops rather than banks. They can only be used to buy things at particular shops. Anything you spend on your store card is borrowed money. If you do not pay off the full amount each month you will start paying interest on it.

Student loans company (SLC)

Lends money to higher education students to enable them to meet expenses. Owned by the UK government.

Take home pay

Your actual monthly salary after deductions such as income tax and national insurance contributions (ie net pay).


A fee charged by a government on a product (VAT), income (income tax), or activity (road tax) to finance government expenditure on public goods and services, such as the police, the NHS, street lighting or street cleaning.

Tax allowance

A tax allowance is the amount of money you can earn before paying income tax.

Tax code

This code tells your employer how much tax-free pay to give you each time you are paid. Your tax code is worked out from your tax allowances and other tax adjustments.

Tax credits

Means-tested allowances. There are working tax credits (WTC) and child tax credits (CTC).

Tax this period

Shown on a payslip - how much income tax you have to pay this pay period. It is worked out from tables using your tax code.

Tax year

A 12 month period running from 6th April one year to 5th April the next year. Taxes, such as income tax, are worked out over this period.

Taxation (local)

You may pay local taxes such as council tax. This money is used to pay for local services such as libraries and the police.

Taxation (national)

You are taxed in a variety of ways; for example, by paying income tax on your wages, by paying VAT when you buy certain goods, by paying the road fund licence for a car. These taxes are used to finance services such as the National Health Service, Armed Forces and education which are of benefit to everyone.


Training and Development Agency - a Government body with overall responsibility for teacher training and continuing professional development in England. This agency takes a decision each year about the amount of teachers that the country needs and issues places to providers to meet the need.

Teaching Schools

Schools which have been given the remit to train teachers. They have been set up in a similar way to teaching hospitals


Someone who rents where they live.


The time for which something lasts e.g. how long you have to pay back a loan.

Term accounts

Savings account that lasts for a set period (such as two years). You may not be able to take your money out early.

Term of the loan

Generally the longer the period you borrow the money on a loan, the lower the interest rate (but this will still add up over the time that you’re paying the money back).

Third party insurance

Third party insurance means that your insurance company will pay out if you accidentally cause damage to another person or their car. Adding in ‘fire and theft’ means that your car is covered should it be stolen or damaged by fire.

Total deductions

On a payslip - this is the total amount that will be taken from your gross pay. What is left after this is your take-home pay.


A transaction is any payment in or out of a bank account.

Travel insurance

When you travel abroad you may want to take out travel insurance. Many countries will not treat you if you have an accident or fall ill unless you can pay the possibly expensive medical bills. Some travel insurance policies will cover such events as the cost of flying you home early, reimbursement for lost luggage or cancelled flights etc.

Travellers’ cheques

Special cheques that can be used abroad and are a safe way to carry money overseas.

University Technical Colleges

One type of academy, usually for students aged 14 to 19 and specialising on work related learning

Unpaid work

An activity that contributes to the wellbeing of people where a salary is not paid; for example, housework.

Unsecured loan

A loan that does not use anything you own as security. Hence if you do not keep up with payments your possessions are not immediately at risk, but you can be taken to court and your credit rating can be adversely affected.


Utilities are services such as gas, electricity and water.

Utility bills

Bills with charges for electricity, water, gas and telephone.


Value Added Tax. A tax paid by the consumer for goods and services.

Virtual Learning Environment (VLE)

An education system based on the web which allows access to lesson content, assessments, and other tools.

Voluntary excess

You can get a reduction in your insurance premium if you agree to pay the first part of every insurance claim yourself. The insurer will then pay for anything more than this.

Welsh Baccalaureate

WBQ is a ‘wrap-around’ qualification for young people attending schools and colleges in Wales. In order for the WBQ to be awarded students must complete four challenges - including one based around enterprise and employability - alongside a range of appropriate academic and/or vocational optional qualifications.

What Money Means

A pfeg project which ran in primary schools from 2007-12


A legal document showing how a person’s assets are to be distributed and to whom after death.

Winter fuel payment

A benefit which helps the elderly with heating bills


Money taken out of your account.

Work related learning (WRL)

The label often given to teaching and learning designed to introduce learners to the working environment. It may include an element of work experience and enterprise education.

Work shadowing

A form of work experience where you follow someone doing their job to learn more about it.


A vehicle damaged beyond repair that insurers pay a mutually agreed value.


Working Tax Credit; a mean-tested tax benefit designed to encourage people into employment by providing financial help for those on low incomes.


The income from an investment, usually shown as a percentage of its current market price.